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Hotspot Shield 5 2 3 =LINK=

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Hotspot Shield 5 2 3


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Myanmar is globally recognized as a highly important hotspot of biodiversity, supporting a great number of species and abundant forest resources (Myers et al. 2000). Unfortunately, by 2010 the deforested areas in Myanmar totalled 21,178.8 km2, with an annual deforestation rate of 0.81% between 1990 and 2010 (Wang and Myint 2016). Yet some regions, especially montane ones, remain rich in woodlands, including primary tropical forest.

Site U1374 (Alternative Site LOUI-6B) was the thirdsite completed during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 330and the second of the two sites that were drilled on Rigil Guyot (Sites U1373and U1374). Site U1374 represents one of the older seamount targets with an ageof 73 Ma and only is a few million years younger than Site U1372 on CanopusGuyot to the northwest. If the Louisville hotspot experienced a paleolatitudeshift similar to the recorded 15 southern motion of the Hawaiian hotspotbetween 80 and 50 Ma, this shift is expected to be largest for the oldestseamounts in the Louisville seamount trail. Because Sites U1373 and U1374target two disparate sequences of ancient lava flows on the same volcanicedifice and because Rigil Guyot is only slightly younger than Canopus Guyot, itis expected that these three sites together will significantly strengthen ourdeterminations of the Louisville paleolatitude at the old end of the trail.

Drilling during ODP Leg 197 provided the firstcompelling evidence for the motion of mantle plumes by documenting a large 15shift in paleolatitude for the Hawaiian hotspot (Tarduno et al., 2003; Duncanet al., 2006). This lead to two geodynamical end-member models that are beingtested during Expedition 330, namely that the Louisville and Hawaiian hotspotsmoved coherently over geological time (Wessel and Kroenke 1997; Courtillot etal. 2003) or, quite the opposite, that these hotspots show considerableinter-hotspot motions, as predicted by mantle flow models (Steinberger, 2002;Steinberger et al., 2004; Koppers et al., 2004; Steinberger and Antretter, 2006;Steinberger and Calderwood, 2006). The most important objective of Expedition330 therefore was to core deep into the igneous basement of four Louisvilleseamounts to sample a large number of in situ lava flows ranging in age between80 and 50 Ma. With a sufficiently large number of these independent coolingunits high-quality estimates of their paleolatitude can be determined, and anyrecorded paleolatitude shift (or lack thereof) can be compared with seamountsin the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount trail. For this reason Expedition 330 mimickedthe drilling strategy of ODP Leg 197 by drilling Louisville guyots equivalentin age to Detroit (76-81 Ma), Suiko (61 Ma), Nintoku (56 Ma) and Koko (49 Ma)in the Emperor seamounts. Accurate paleomagnetic inclination data are requiredfor the drilled seamounts to establish a record of the past motion of theLouisville hotspot, and together with high-resolution 40Ar/39Arage dating of the cored lava flows, these data will help us to constrain thepaleolatitudes of the Louisville hotspot between 80 and 50 Ma. Thesecomparisons are of fundamental importance to determine whether these two primary hotspots have moved coherently or not, and tounderstand the nature of hotspots and convection in the Earth's mantle.

Expedition 330 also aimed to provide importantinsights into the magmatic evolution and melting processes that produced andconstructed Louisville volcanoes while progressing from their shield topost-shield, and maybe post-erosional, volcanic stages. Existing data fromdredged lavas suggest that the mantle source of the Louisville hotspot has beenremarkably homogeneous for as much as 80 m.y. (Cheng et al., 1987; Hawkins etal., 1987; Vanderkluysen et al., 2011). In addition, all dredged basalts arepredominantly alkalic and possibly represent a mostly alkalic shield-buildingstage, which is in contrast to the tholeiitic shield-building stage ofvolcanoes in the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount trail (Hawkins et al., 1987;Vanderkluysen et al., 2011). Analyses of melt inclusions, volcanic glasssamples, primitive basalts, high-Mg olivines and clinopyroxene phenocrysts willprovide further constraints on the asserted homogeneity of the Louisville plumesource, its compositional evolution between 80 and 50 Ma, potential mantle plumetemperatures, and its magma genesis, volatile outgassing and differentiation.In addition, incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar age datingwill allow us to establish age histories within each drill core delineating anytransitions from the shield-building phase to the post-shield capping andpost-erosional stages.

Another importantobjective of Expedition 330 at Site U1374 was to use new paleolatitudeestimates, 40Ar/39Ar ages and geochemical data to decidewhether the oldest Louisville seamounts were formed close to the 18-28Spaleolatitude determined from ODP Leg 192 basalts for the Ontong Java Plateau(Riisager et al., 2003) and whether this Large Igneous Province (LIP) wasgenetically linked to the Louisville hotspot or not. This would prove ordisprove the hypothesis that the Ontong Java Plateau formed by the precedingplume head of the Louisville mantle upwelling (e.g. Richards and Griffiths,1989; Mahoney and Spencer, 1991).

Cheng, Q., Park, K.-H., MacDougall, J.D., Zindler, A., Lugmair, G.W., Hawkins,J., Lonsdale, P., Staudigel, H. (1987). Isotopic evidence for a hotspot origin of the Louisville seamount chain.In: B.H. Keating, P. Fryer, R. Batiza, G.W. Boehlert (Editors), Seamounts,islands and atolls. American Geophysical Union Monograph, Washington, 43:283-296.

Koppers, A.A.P., Duncan,R.A., Steinberger, B. (2004). Implications of a non-linear 40Ar/39Arage progression along the Louisville seamount trail for models of fixed andmoving hotspots. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 5(1). Paper Number2003GC000671. 22 pp.

Steinberger, B., Sutherland,R., and O'Connell, R. J. (2004). Mantle flow models constrained byrevised global plate motions successfully predict the Emperor-Hawaii and otherhotspot-related seamount chains. Nature, 430, 167-173,doi:10.1038/nature02660.

Steinberger, B. and Antretter, M. (2006). Conduitdiameter and buoyant rising speed of mantle plumes: Implications for the motionof hotspots and shape of plume conduits. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems7, Q11018, doi:10.1029/2006GC001409.

Tarduno, J.A., Duncan, R.A., Scholl, D.W., Cottrell, R.D., Steinberger,B., Thordarson, T., Kerr, B.C., Neal, C.R., Frey. F.A., Torii, M., Carvallo, C.(2003). The Emperor Seamounts: Southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot plumein Earth's mantle, Science, 301, 1,064-1,069.

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